Social Cohesion

  Crisis Rebuild & Reform Transition Transformation Resilience
Inclusiveness Governance is neither inclusive nor participatory. Weak and inadequate institutions deliver infrastructure services only sporadically Regulatory structures and independent oversight bodies are in place but limited in effectiveness Good governance principles are adhered to but there is an overall lack of public understanding of institutional arrangements due to some lack of transparency Well-capacitated institutions are in place to ensure stakeholder participation and respect for due process; infrastructure decisions are generally evidence-based and well-documented
Social Divisions Absence of basic law and order Struggle for power and resources between groups causes clashes between political parties (or one-party dominance) Government is able to limit counter-productive stakeholder activities (such as rent-seeking that is not efficiency-related) Civil society has begun to play an active role in political and societal debates and reforms related to infrastructure Respect and friendly relationships amongst social groups within society
Civil Society Lack of strong civil society organizations (CSOs): some international organizations and local CSOs are engaged in emergency relief efforts CSOs are increasingly improving their service provision but there is a lack of credible leadership in civil society; conflicts of interest are present but not questioned Increase in CSOs and improved quality of oversight and advocacy related to infrastructure; some public participation in regulatory meetings Groups respect the variety of communities of interest making up society; some participation in regulatory proceedings. Role of civil society has been defined in terms of participation, monitoring, and complaint-resolution.
Confidence in Infrastructure Institutions Lack of public confidence in the infrastructure institutions Lack of clear and distinct mandates between infrastructure organizations that develop and implement policy and that operate systems The public has begun to have confidence in the infrastructure institutions, though functions are not necessarily separated The perceived legitimacy of infrastructure institutions has increased, along with public confidence Communities have full confidence in the infrastructure institutions; stakeholders participate in regulatory proceedings