A substitute for litigation (adversarial lawsuit) as a way for establishing regulatory rules or reaching consensus on decisions. ADR provides a means to settle disputes without recourse to the formal judicial system. The process could involve negotiated settlements among the parties potentially affected by a ruling. There could be mediation, where one party assists in settling differences among contending parties. Such approaches can represent a less expensive and speedy mechanism for reaching agreement than participating in a formal hearing (where there seem to be winners and losers) or engaging in a contentious appeals process.